This is a glossary of terms that are common in Document Imaging.
Definition of Terms
A digital image that can include as many as 256 possible colors. Eight bits are allocated for the storage of each pixel.
8-bit color/gray scale
In 8-bit color, each pixel has eight bits assigned to it, providing 256 colors or shades of gray, as in a grayscale image.
Same as true-color image. Generally refers to 24-bit or better images.
In 24 bit color, each pixel has 24 bits assigned to it, representing
16.7 million colors. 8-bits - or one byte - is assigned to each of the
red, green, and blue components of a pixel.
A digital image that can include as many as 16.7 million possible
colors. Twenty-four bits are allocated for the storage of each pixel.
Moves data into an image-editing application from a PCMCIA card, from an
archive folder on your hard disk, or from the dynamic random access
memory of a camera connected to a computer without a PCMCIA card. As the
image is acquired, the color correction values associated with the
current balance selection are applied to the image data.
Box that appears on screen to give a warning or to report an error
message. Sometimes accompanied by a beep.
The window on the desktop where the next action will occur. Horizontal
lines in the title bar indicate that the window is the active one.
A duplicate of a file's icon, not of the file itself, indicated by an
italicized icon name
PIE function that smoothes the edges of text or reduces the
stair-stepping of an image where individual pixels are visible. It gives
it a more professionally printed look.
A PIE operating mode. When PIE is in attended mode, it stops the first
time it finds an error, prompts you to resolve the error, and starts up
again only after you do so. See also Unattended Mode.
The color or pattern that sits behind the images in the composite.
A feature on a printer that can automatically add date, time, or
specific text to the backside of the picture.
The color depth or pixel values for a digital image. The number of
possible colors or shades of gray that can be included in an image.
Differences in the intensity of light reflected from or transmitted
through an image independent of its hue and saturation. It's the value
of a pixel in an electronic image, representing its lightness value from
black to white. Brightness is usually defined in levels ranging in value
from 0 (black) to 255 (white).
The intensity of light reflected from or transmitted through an image.
Button-like, on-screen graphic that appears in dialog and alert boxes
and that you click to go ahead with or to cancel an action. See also
The act of adjusting the color of one device relative to another, such
as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder. Or, it may
be the process of adjusting the color of one device to some established
On-screen button that appears in some boxes. Clicking it cancels the
action and closes the box.
Features associated with images or text. Examples of image
characteristics are contrast, color balance, orientation, and degree of
cropping. Examples of text characteristics are style, font, and texture.
To pick a command by dragging through a menu.
An Edit menu command that lets you remove selected material without
placing it on the Clipboard. See also Cut.
Point to an item and then quickly press and release the mouse button.
Areas in which the most recently cut or copied item is temporarily
stored. The item on the Clipboard can be pasted into layouts.
Stands for the three subtractive primary ink colors and black: Cyan,
Magenta, and Yellow and blacK.
The ability to reproduce the colors of a scene to some acceptable
An instruction given to the computer that causes it to perform an
See Composite Image.
One of the user interfaces used to create and edit composites.
A collection of images, such as a school class, a sports team, or a
Tonal gradation between the highlights, mid tones, and shadows in an
image. High contrast implies dark black and bright white. Medium
contrast implies a good spread from black to white, and Low contrast
implies a narrow spread of values from black to white.
Shortcut used to select an image and the associated name.
A white, 10 x 10 pixel square that appears in the top-left corner of an
image when it is first selected. You can change the size of the control
spot or create a new one for a specific job.
An Edit menu command you use to copy a selected item to the Clipboard
without removing it from its original location. You can then paste the
item into the same or other layouts. The Copy command copies only the
image filenames (IDs) or people's names. It does not copy image or text
characteristics. See also Copy Attributes.
An Edit menu command you use to remove selected items from their
original location and store them on a Clipboard. You can then apply
(paste) the characteristics to the images or names in the same or in a
To size and position an image in order to use a specific portion of the
image. It simulates the old method of trimming photographs by hand on a
An Edit menu command you use to remove selected items from their
original location and store them on the Clipboard. You can paste the
items to other locations in the same or other composites. The Cut
command affects only image filenames (IDs) or people's names. Image or
text characteristics do not accompany the names to the new location.
A value, action, or setting the computer assumes unless you specify
Ability of an object to stop or absorb light. The less the light is
reflected or transmitted by an object, the higher its density.
It measures the amount of light that is reflected or transmitted by an
object, and is used to correct color in a composite image. The
Densitometer tool 'memorizes' sampled color areas and then matches them
to a selected current color.
To act on, typically by clicking somewhere else, a selected item so that
it is no longer selected or highlighted.
Remove specks from an image. A despeckle filter actually blurs the
entire image, except for the edges.
On-screen box that contains a message and that often requests more
information. If an ellipsis (...) follows a menu item, a dialog box will
always appear next.
See grayed out.
PIE command that lets you look at composites as they're being assembled.
A workstation security key.
Point to an item, then press the mouse button twice rapidly. It's a
shortcut or quick way to open folders and to choose items.
The process of moving text, graphics, or photos to different locations
in a document. Or it's the way to select items from a list, to select
test, and to move items from place to place. Hold down the mouse button
as you move the arrow pointer to make your selection.
Stand for Dynamic Random Access Memory. Images are temporarily stored in
the camera's DRAM before being stored on the PCMCIA card.
Standard MACINTOSH menu, similar to other Edit menus. Contains editing
commands such as Cut, Paste, Select Group, and so on.
Three dots enclosed in parentheses (...). Menu items followed by an
ellipsis require a dialog box.
Displayed on screen in an alert box to tell you about an error or
The addition of letters, numbers, etc. that can be attached to the end
of an image ID to further identify it from other file names.
Similar to other program's File menus. The Composite Editor File menu
contains commands that affect the entire composite (for example: Open
and Save). The PIE File menu contains the commands for controlling the
PIE operations (for example: Suspend and Attended).
Composite Editor feature that lets you automatically import as many
images as you want from a folder into a composite.
PIE command you use to stop assembling the current composite and to
remove it from the job queue.
A collection of letters, numbers, and symbols whose design is based on
Information that does not change from layer to layer. For example,
background color, logos, institutional names.
A scanned image or a special image designed using an image-manipulation
application (ADOBE PHOTOSHOP, for example) that looks like a picture
Pattern of dots that makes a menu, menu item, option, or icon dimmed out
on screen. A grayed out menu, menu item, or other option is not
available; a grayed out icon indicates that the icon is already open.
Version of the composite displayed on screen in the PIE window when the
composite is being assembled. Shows exactly how the composite will look
when it's printed.
To make an object 'shaded' so that it is distinguished from other
objects on a display screen or hard-copy printout.
A bar graph analysis tool that can be used to identify contrast and
dynamic range image problems. Histograms are found in most software
programs that are used to manipulate digital images.
A pointer shaped like a capital I. Used for working with text.
On-screen graphic that represents an object, a concept, or a message.
A block on the layout where an image or image-related information goes.
It can include the background block and the blocks for people's images.
Contains commands that affect the images in the composite.
Reverses the way an image looks (makes a positive image into a negative
and vice versa). An item on the Maps submenu (Maps is an item on the
Image Print Server
Abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network. A
telecommunications network where voice, data, and images will be sent
and received simultaneously in a single digital form.
Contains commands that affect the job file for the composite.
Join Lines Option
Feature that lets you specify that people's names appear on one line
instead of two.
An image compression standard developed by the Joint Photographic
Experts Group. JPEG has become a standard image compression method
allowing for compression ratios of approximately 10:1 before differences
can be seen.
Officially called ISO 15444, the "JPEG 2000: Image Coding System", it's
a standardized format that will expand the ability to manage and
transport continuous tone images without noticeable loss of quality.
Position of text relative to the text block that it's in. Text can be
left justified, centered, or right justified.
A combination of keys that you can press instead of using the mouse to
perform an action.
Two or more keys you can press to accomplish an action more efficiently.
A keyboard shortcut requires the use of at least one modifier key (the
command key or the Option key) to complete the action.
A stand alone computerized system that is used to present multimedia
information to multiple users. They are usually placed in high traffic
areas where many people can access the information that they provide.
They can be either interactive or operate automatically.
KODAK Professional Imaging Engine (PIE)
The application that works in the background assembling the
high-resolution versions of your composites.
Kodak Proprietary Language
Variable items that will change, for example, people's images and names.
Layers are like stacks of transparency material that are placed one on
top of the other.
An arrangement of image blocks you work with to create your composites.
The Composite Editor provides layouts that contain from 10 to 64 images.
A plug-in that provides you with a method for creating templates in
which you can place images and text.
Low -resolution version
The version of the composite displayed on screen when you're working
with the Composite Editor and Preview Images is turned on. It doesn't
show special effects such as frames, backgrounds, etc., or what text
really looks like. Also, it doesn't let you see the effect of changes
you make to image characteristics such as sharpen and blur.
Look Up Table. It's a reference file used to convert images from one
color space to another. An example is a look up table for converting RGB
pixels into CYMK pixels for printing. It can also be used as a
cross-reference table that transforms raw information from a device
(such as a scanner), and corrects the values to compensate for
differences in device behavior.
A special effect you paste images through so that you can only see part
of the images, or so that they blend into the background.
A list of commands or items from which to choose.
Small, hand-held device you use to control the pointer on the computer
Mechanical button on top of the mouse that you use to perform actions
Operator Control Panel
To make available.
Key combination you press to indicate that a new line of text should
To translate information from the computer to an external device (for
example, a printer).
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. The card is
used to connect peripherals to computer systems for additional
A group you select when you want to apply a characteristic to, or to
edit all the images in the composite. A permanent group is associated
with the layout and is always the same. A layout provided by Composite
Editor has one permanent group associated with it.
Kodak Professional Imaging Engine. It's an application that works in the
background assembling the high-resolution versions of your composites.
It sends the composite images or JOBS to output devices. It also acts as
a color management tool, and provides automated long roll scanning
The smallest element of a digitized image. Also, one of the tiny points
of light that make up a picture on a computer screen.
Move the mouse to place the arrow pointer on an item.
An arrow or other symbol on the screen that moves as you move the mouse.
You use the pointer to choose commands, to indicate where you want to
insert text, to move images, and so forth.
A user interface for previewing and selecting images; adjusting and
correcting images; accepting choices of layout, images, and text; and
Composite Editor mode that lets you see the low-resolution version of
the composite you're working on. When editing, for example, Preview
Images lets you see color-related changes, cropping changes, and
orientation changes. It also lets you see which images you invert. It
won't show the background or any special effects (frames, for example).
PIE command that lets you see Imaging Engine's current status.
The type of error that the operator can resolve.
A user interface for retouching images; previewing and selecting images;
adjusting and correcting images; and submitting jobs.
Service Assembly Module. Used for diagnostic purposes on the HR 500 Film
The amount of gray in a color. More gray means lower saturation; less
gray means higher saturation. If a color has no saturation, it is a
shade of gray. It's also the degree to which a color is undiluted by
An electronic device that digitizes and converts photographs, slides, or
other two-dimensional images into bit mapped images. Different methods
of illumination transmit light through red, green and blue filters and
digitize the image into a stream of pixels. Once an image is converted
into digital form, it can be stored and manipulated on computers.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
A computer connection that is preferred for digital imaging because of
its high speed and standard interface.
To specify where the next action will occur. You click a screen area or
drag through text to select an item. A selected item is usually
Standard MACINTOSH key combination you can use to select multiple items
in Composite Editor layouts.
Show Info Window
Area in the layout window where you enter text, and the area which
displays information associated with items in the layout pop-up menu.
To reorganize a number of items so that they appear in the correct
Contains miscellaneous commands that are not related to a specific
Standard Query Language used by many programs to manipulate and manage
It's special effects such as boldface, italic, outline, etc. that are
applied to text in the Composite Editor.
The PIE command you use to temporarily stop Imagine Engine operations.
To exchange two items so that each appears where the other was
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) files
The file format that stores digital images. Composite Machine accepts
just TIFF Images as input.
A group you set up when you want to apply a characteristic to, or to
edit a few images. A temporary group is disbanded when you deselect it.
The area in the layout where text goes. The large text block contains
the composite file; text nodes below the individual image nodes are for
Contains commands for working with text, including the Font, Style, and
The bar at the top of a window that shows the name of the window. When
the application is active, horizontal lines appear in the title bar.
The number of levels of gray in a black and white image.
One of two PIE operating modes. When PIE is in unattended mode and it
finds an error in the composite, it will put the composite in the rerun
queue. It then continues assembling composites that don't have errors.
See also Attended Mode.
Edit menu command that lets you reverse the most recent command you
A faint marking on the back of some photographic papers indicating that
the picture was taken by a professional photographer.
What You See Is What You Get. It refers to the ability to output data
from computers exactly as it appears on the screen.
To enlarge or shrink the blocks in a layout in order to see the layout
Press the top button to enlarge the layout blocks; or press the bottom
button to shrink the layout blocks.